John Cooper and Associates, P.A.
Cooling Tower Thermal Performance Upgrade Specialist
Cost - Effective Cooling Tower Thermal Upgrades

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Cooling Tower Thermal Upgrade Projects
2003 Update

Contacting : John Cooper and Associates, P. A.


Background:
Two 200' OD round Zurn Towers with twelve 32' OD fans and 400 HP motors. In August 1992 tower 1 tested at 92% and tower 2 tested at 89%. Florida Power Corporation desired to increase circulation. flow by 10% and increase capability by 10%.
1993-Status:
Project has been successfully completed. Initially, exit air temperature and velocity mapping were prepared for isolate water distribution problems. Following the mapping a computer model of the water distribution system was completed along with the development of the Upgrade Design Modification Package. In July 1993, after all upgrade design modifications were implemented, the No. 1 Anclote cooling tower was retested. Capability was 100.8% and flumes did not overflow at higher flow because of resized nozzle orifice sizes.
2003 Update:
In February of 1999 JC&A inspected the Anclote Plant cooling towers and noted evidence of fill fouling in both towers. In late September and early August of 1999 JC&A prepared updated exit air temperature and velocity mappings in order to determine the extent of fill fouling in the towers. In November of 2001 JC&A completed a formal “Study Phase Report” to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and impact on thermal performance of replacing the cooling towers’ high efficiency PVC fill with low-fouling PVC fill. The following year JC&A prepared the bid specification document for replacing the fill systems of both towers with low-fouling fill. In October of 2001 JC&A completed the technical evaluations of the proposals for replacing the fill. As of this writing, in July 2003, the fill replacement has been completed in one cooling tower with the second tower’s fill replacement scheduled for late 2003.


Background:
One 447 ft. tall Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower tested at 94% of design capability in September 1987.
Status:
Project has been successfully completed. Prepared "Pre-" and "Post-" Upgrade exit air temperature and velocity mappings, computer hydraulic analysis of the water distribution system and developed the Upgrade Design Modification Package. In April 1994, after all upgrade design modifications were implemented, the ANO cooling tower tested at 101% of design capability.
2003 Update:
In August of 1995 JC&A completed a formal study to evaluate the impact of replacing the ANO cooling tower’s asbestos cement fill system with various PVC fill designs on the Mw output of the power plant. In December of 1998 JC&A completed a second study to evaluate the performance of the existing fill system design, and several alternate fill designs, at 107.5% uprate conditions. Also in December of 1998, JC&A conducted a two-day cooling tower seminar at ANO. 


Background:
Two of the four Research Cottrell natural draft cooling towers at this plant suffered significant performance losses because of severe fill degradation and fouling.
Status:
Exit air temperature and velocity mappings of Unit 3 & 4 cooling towers were prepared in December 1992 in order to evaluate the extent of fill and water distribution system problems in the 21 year old cooling towers. Georgia Power opted to replace the entire fill system in both cooling towers in 1995-1996.



  •  Brandon Shores Unit 2 – Baltimore Gas & Electric Company

 Background:
One circular concrete counterflow salt-water Zurn cooling tower with eighteen 40 ft. diameter fans that came on line in 1991. The cooling tower’s high efficiency PVC fill system experienced significant fouling after only a few years in service.
Status:
JC&A prepared a “Pre-Upgrade” mapping of the cooling tower in February 1998 in order to assess the extent of fill fouling. In August 1999 JC&A wrote the bid specification document for replacement of the fill with low-fouling PVC fill and renovation of the fans and gearbox support structures. In December 1999 JC&A prepared technical evaluations of bidder’s Proposals. After the fill replacement and tower renovation work was completed, testing showed the tower performance to be 82% of design. Exit air temperature mappings prepared by JC&A in May 2002 revealed that the cooling tower’s original water distribution system design does not provide adequate water coverage over the newly installed vertical fluted low-fouling fill.


Background:
Three Research Cottrell natural draft cooling towers with deficiencies ranging from 2 - 3 degrees F.
Status:
Exit air temperature and velocity mappings of all three Bruce Mansfield cooling towers were performed in August - September of 1993. Significant water distribution problems were found in all three cooling towers. Ohio Edison requested the development of an upgrade modification for Units 1 & 2 in October 1996. Design work was completed in October 1996. Upgrade design modifications were incorporated into the Unit 1 tower in November 1996 and Unit 2 in October 1998.
2003 Update:
In October of 1997 JC&A prepared a “Post-Upgrade” exit air mapping of the Unit 1 cooling tower. The mapping revealed the existence of significant nozzle pluggage in the tower. In September of 1998 JC&A provided “Pre-Upgrade” thermal performance capability testing services for the Unit 2 and Unit 3 cooling towers. Power Generation Technologies, a CTI-licensed testing agency, provided manpower and equipment as subcontractor to JC&A in this effort. Results of the testing indicated that the Unit 2 tower was performing at 85% capability and the Unit 3 tower was performimg at 72% capability. In June of 2001 JC&A completed a Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package for the Unit 3 cooling tower. Implementation of the design modification of the Unit 3 cooling tower is scheduled for the fall of 2003.


Background:
The tallest cooling tower in the western hemisphere at 553 ft. This Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower has been about 2 - 3 degrees deficient since plant start-up in 1984.
Status:
Project successfully completed. In June 1992 exit air temperature and velocity mappings of the Callaway cooling tower were made. Significant air and water distribution problems were identified. A computer hydraulic analysis of the water distribution system was made along with the development of an Upgrade Design Modification Package. After implementation of all design modifications in October - November 1993, Union Electric reported a 3 degree F reduction in cooling tower cold water temperature. 
This Upgrade effort and results were published and presented at EPRI’s 1994 Cooling Tower Conference in St. Petersburg, Florida.
2003 Update:
In November 1995 JC&A completed a formal Phase 1 Study to evaluate the thermal performance efficiencies and cost-effectiveness of various fill replacement and fill augmentation options for the Callaway hyperbolic cooling tower. In the summer of 2000 JC&A prepared a bid specification document for upgrade modification of the cooling tower’s fill system. In March 2001 JC&A developed design modifications to the hyperbolic cooling tower’s nozzle arrays in order to accommodate parallel operation with a helper mechanical draft tower. In May 2001 JC&A prepared the bid specification document for a state-of-the-art fiberglass helper mechanical draft cooling tower featuring low-fouling PVC fill and high efficiency, low pressure drop drift eliminators. At this writing, in October 2003, construction of the helper tower at the Callaway Plant has been postponed.


  •  Chalk Point Station, Units 3 and 4 – Mirant Mid-Atlantic

Background:
Two 25 year old 374 foot diameter crossflow natural draft cooling towers whose annulus-shaped precast concrete fill and water distribution system support structure have been badly damaged by excessive ice loading, exposure to numerous freeze-thaw cycles, and excessive chloride penetration associated with continuous exposure to aggressive brackish circulating water.
Status:
In April 2000 JC&A was retained as consultant to develop cost effective strategies for resolving the Chalk Point cooling tower problems. In order to assess the thermal performance efficiencies of the cooling towers, JC&A performed thermal performance testing in June 2000 with Power Generation Technologies as subcontractor. Following the testing, JC&A computed the Mw losses associated with the cooling tower deficiencies and recommended conversion of the crossflow cooling towers to a counterflow configuration. In June 2001 JC&A prepared the Bid Specification Documents for the demolition of the existing fill and fill support structure and conversion of the Unit 3 cooling tower to a counterflow design utilizing pultruded fiberglass structure, low-fouling PVC fill, and high efficiency, low pressure drop PVC drift eliminators. The conversion of the Unit 3 cooling tower was successfully completed in 2002.


 Crystal River Units 4 and 5 – Florida Power Corporation

Background:
Two counterflow hyperbolic towers originally designed by John Cooper in the late 1970’s while employed as Chief Thermal Engineer with Zurn Industries. These twin salt water towers were originally designed with high efficiency cross-corrugated PVC fill modules and have a long history of fill fouling problems.
Status:
In December 1996 JC&A contracted with Florida Power to conduct an engineering study to evaluate options for fill replacement in the cooling towers. In August 1998 JC&A performed exit air temperature and velocity mappings to isolate sources of thermal performance deficiency in both cooling towers. In September 1998 JC&A developed design modifications to improve water distribution at the cooling tower perimeter and adjacent to the water distribution flumes. In June 2000, after the design modifications were implemented, JC&A performed “Post-Upgrade” mappings of both cooling towers. In March 2002 JC&A conducted an in depth engineering study to evaluate the cost benefits associated with replacing the cooling towers’ high efficiency fill with low-fouling fill and replacement of all lateral distribution pipes and drift eliminators. After all fill, lateral pipes, and drift eliminators were replaced in the Unit 5 cooling tower in 2002, JC&A performed a benchmark exit air mapping on the Unit 5 cooling tower (July 2002).


 

 Background:
Two 18-cell counterflow induced-draft fiberglass cooling towers that have served Exelon Nuclear's Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, since June of 2000. Each of the two "once through" cooling towers is comprised of 9 pair of 54 ft. x 54 ft. back-to-back cells designed to reduce the temperature of 315,200 gpm of fresh water extracted from the Dresden Station's "hot canal", which transports cooling water from the power station to a cooling lake. In July of 2001, the six foot deep high efficiency cross-corrugated PVC fill systems of the hot canal cooling towers became so badly fouled with silt that the FRP fill support structure and casing wall of Cell No. 1-C were damaged by the heavy silt-laden fill modules.
Status:
In August 2001 JC&A was retained by Exelon to provide consulting services in support of their efforts to resolve the hot canal cooling tower problem. JC&A provided engineering analysis and design services in order to assess the impact of replacing the cooling towers’ high efficiency fill with low-fouling PVC fill. In September 2001 JC&A wrote a bid specification document that covered removal and replacement of damaged FRP cooling tower structural members, installation of low-fouling fill, installation of trash screens to pump intake structures, and installation of electronic fill fouling monitoring systems. In October 2001 JC&A provided thermal analysis and design services for a new Extended Power Uprate cooling tower for the Dresden Station. In January 2002 JC&A performed technical evaluations of proposals for renovation of the damaged hot canal cooling towers. In April 2002 JC&A served as expert witness in a legal matter relating to the damaged hot canal cooling towers. In May 2002 JC&A prepared bid specification documents for a new state-of-the-art fiberglass EPU cooling tower. The new 6-cell EPU cooling tower was constructed in 2003.


  • Grand Gulf Nuclear Station - Entergy Operations, Inc.

Background:
One counterflow hyperbolic cooling tower originally designed by John Cooper in the 1970’s while employed as Chief Thermal Engineer with Zurn Industries.
Status:
From 1992 through 1999 JC&A provided consulting and inspection services relating to the maintenance of the cooling tower’s high efficiency fill system. In 1992 JC&A  conducted a five-day onsite cooling tower workshop and seminar. In 2000 JC&A was awarded two engineering analysis and design contracts relating to the development of preliminary designs for a helper cooling tower installed in parallel with the existing hyperbolic cooling tower. The helper mechanical draft tower was constructed in 2002, reducing the temperature of the return water to the condenser by about 8 degrees Fahrenheit.


  • Harris Nuclear Plant – Carolina Power & Light Company

Background:
One Hamon/Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower designed circa 1983. The cooling tower fill system is comprised of Hamon Coolfilm PVC fill modules that have experienced wholescale failure of glue joints resulting in individual PVC sheets that are folded and leaning over. A layer of Brentwood CF-1200 fill is installed on top of the Coolfilm modules at the cooling tower perimeter. Thermal performance testing in 1987 indicated performance at 89% capability.
Status:
In November 1999 JC&A was awarded a contract to develop a Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package. Development of the design modifications to the cooling tower water distribution system was completed in December 1999. All upgrade design modifications were implemented in 2000. Thermal performance testing of the cooling tower is planned for the fall of 2003.


Background:
Three Research Cottrell counterflow natural draft cooling towers originally designed with asbestos cement fill and drift eliminators. The Unit 1 and 2 cooling towers were repacked with high efficiency PVC fill in the 1980’s. The Unit 3 cooling tower was repacked with low-fouling PVC fill in 1993.
Status:
In June 1999 JC&A performed an exit air temperature and velocity mapping of the Unit 1 cooling tower in order to assess the extent of fill fouling. After determining that fill fouling was widespread, the Owner decided to replace the fill in the Unit 1 and 2 cooling towers with low-fouling PVC fill. In August 1999 JC&A wrote the bid specification document for replacing the fill in the cooling towers with low-fouling fill. In December 1999 JC&A prepared technical evaluations of the bidders’ proposals. In July 2000 JC&A performed an exit air mapping of the Unit 3 cooling tower, revealing significant water distribution problems over boundary areas of the fill system. In February 2001 JC&A developed a Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package for the Unit 3 cooling tower.



Background:
One large Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower that uses brackish water from the Delaware River. This tower has been about 2 - 3 degrees deficient since plant start-up.
Status:
Very significant water distribution problems were revealed in exit air temperature and velocity mappings of the Hope Creek cooling tower prepared by JC&A in July 1993. In January 1994 PSE&G contracted with JC&A to develop a "partial fix", involving the design of stainless steel flow diverters for installation in the concrete water distribution flumes. Flume flow diverters were installed in the flumes in 1994. In 1995 JC&A prepared an engineering study to evaluate the feasibility of piece-meal replacement of the asbestos cement fill system of the cooling tower. In October 1999 updated exit air temperature and velocity mappings were prepared by JC&A. In October 2000 JC&A developed a Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package to eliminate water distribution problems revealed in the mappings. In March through June 2002 JC&A provided engineering services to develop budgetary pricing and thermal analyses to evaluate the cost effectiveness of replacing perimeter bays of asbestos cement fill sheets with low-fouling PVC fill bottom supported on new pultruded fiberglass fill joists. JC&A prepared the bid specification document for replacing 50% of the perimeter fill with low-fouling PVC fill in July 2002. In August 2002 JC&A prepared the bid specification document for implementation of the Upgrade Design Modification Package developed in October 2000. In November 2002 JC&A prepared technical evaluations of the bidders’ proposals. The perimeter bay fill replacement work and upgrade design modifications were implemented in May 2003.


Background:
Two Research Cottrell natural draft cooling towers that have been about 2 degrees deficient since startup. Unit 1 tower tested at 84.5 % in 1993.
Status:
Significant water distribution problems were found in the exit air temperature and velocity mappings of the Independence Station cooling towers prepared by JC&A in 1991. In 1993, JC&A prepared a detailed engineering Upgrade Design Modification Package for the cooling towers. After design modifications were implemented in Spring 1995, the towers tested at 95 %, with the shortfall attributed to nozzle fallout problems. Nozzles were strapped to the pipes in 1997. Updated exit air mappings of both cooling towers were prepared by JC&A in December 1999.


Background:
One 532 ft. tall Zurn natural draft cooling tower, featuring a 4’ deep Munters CF-19060 PVC fill system. With a circulation. Water flow rate that was 18% above design point flow, the tower capability, in July 1994, was determined to be about 93.5%
in July 1994..
Status:
Exit air temperature and velocity mappings of the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Unit 2 cooling tower prepared by JC&A in 1994 revealed significant water distribution problems related to excessively high water flow. In the fall of 1994, JC&A developed design modifications to the cooling tower water distribution in order to correct the problems seen in the mappings. All modifications to the cooling tower water distribution system were implemented in April 1995. Formal thermal performance testing of Nine Mile Point 2 cooling tower carried out in July 1995 showed no change in thermal performance efficiency due to numerous plugged nozzles.


  • Perry Nuclear Power Plant - Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

Background:
In order to increase plant Mw output, Cleveland Electric requested that John Cooper & Associates develop a cost-effective strategy for upgrading the thermal performance of Perry’s very large Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower.
Status:
Exit air velocity and temperature mappings, prepared by JC&A in March of 1998, revealed the existence of significant cold air intrusion through the drift eliminators in perimeter areas where the depth of the fill system is minimal. JC&A completed the Upgrade Design Modification package, which involved doubling of the number of spray nozzles at the cooling tower perimeter, in October 1998. All upgrade design modifications were implemented into the Perry cooling tower in April 1999.


  • Pleasants Power Station - Allegheny Power

Background:
Allegheny Power solicited the services of John Cooper & Associates, P.A. in November of 1997 to develop an Upgrade Design Modification Package for two Research Cottrell natural draft cooling towers at the Pleasants Station near Parkersburg, West Virginia.
Status:
Exit air mappings prepared in November 1997 revealed very significant water distribution problems near the cooling tower perimeter and next to the water distribution flumes. The Upgrade Design Modification Package was completed in February of 1998. Implementation of the upgrade design modifications to the water distribution system of the Pleasants Unit 1 cooling tower was completed in October of 1998.


  • Plant Scherer – Georgia Power Company

Background:
Four Research Cottrell natural draft cooling towers with longstanding thermal performance deficiencies.
Status:
Exit air mappings of all four cooling towers prepared by JC&A in May 1998 revealed significant water distribution problems over boundary areas of the fill systems of the cooling towers. In October 1999 JC&A developed a Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package for the cooling towers. In September 2003 implementation of the design modifications is in progress.


Background:
Two 20+ year old Marley counterflow natural draft cooling towers with high efficiency PVC fill. In 1990, SECI experienced a substantial loss in cooling tower performance due to plugging of the corrugated passageways of the fill with organic growth and matter, resulting in Unit 1 and Unit 2 cold water temperatures that were 14oF and 21oF above design, respectively. In 2002, after treatment with sodium hypochlorite, cold water temperatures were 2-3oF above design.
Status:
In September 2002 JC&A was awarded a contract to prepare the bid specification document for replacement of the fill, drift eliminators and spray nozzles of both cooling towers. In February 2003 JC&A prepared detailed thermal analyses in order to evaluate the thermal performance claims of the bidders. Cooling tower renovation work began in the fall months of 2003.


Background:
Two Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower with long-standing 2 degrees F thermal performance deficiencies.
Status:
Exit air temperature and velocity mappings of the Susquehanna Unit 1 cooling tower in October 1994 showed serious water distribution problems in the vicinity of the cooling tower perimeter and near the water distribution flumes. A detailed Upgrade Design Modification to the cooling tower was requested. All upgrade modifications to the cooling tower were implemented in May-June 1995 for Unit 2. PP&L reported cold water temperature reduction of 2.5 degrees F in the summer of 1996. Upgrade modifications to Unit 1 were implemented in September of 1996.


Background:
Two large Research Cottrell natural draft cooling towers. In June 1995, Unit 1 cooling tower tested at 90% and Unit 2 cooling tower tested at 86% after extensive upgrade design modifications were made to the fill and water distribution system by Research Cottrell. Riser standpipe water levels were observed to be unusually high under normal operating conditions.
Status:
Exit air temperature and velocity mappings of both cooling towers prepared by JC&A in July 1995 revealed very low fill water loading in the interior of the cooling towers. A detailed Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package was completed by JC&A in November 1995. Implementation of the upgrade design modifications into the Unit 2 cooling tower in the fall of 1997 failed to improve tower performance. Additional modifications to the Unit 2 cooling tower nozzle arrangements, developed by JC&A and implemented in the summer of 1998, also failed to elevate tower performance to desired levels. Updated exit air mappings of the Unit 2 cooling tower prepared by JC&A in September 1999 confirmed that water distribution to the interior regions of the fill system continued to be insufficient.  A third design modification to the cooling tower nozzle arrangements, developed by JC&A in October 1999 and implemented by Georgia Power in 2000, also failed to correct the observed water distribution problems in the interior of the Unit 2 cooling tower. In 2000 Georgia Power discovered that the two interior precast concrete water distribution flumes were improperly installed in the cooling towers, extending by approximately 18 inches into the flow stream of the riser pipes and obstructing flow to the lateral pipes that feed water to the cooling tower interior. In 2003 Georgia Power is considering options for correcting the hydraulic problems caused by the improperly installed flume sections.


Background:
One Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower put into service in May 1996. Formal thermal performance testing in June 1996 revealed that the cooling tower was operating at 88% of design capability.
Status:
JC&A prepared exit air temperature and velocity mappings of the Watts Bar cooling tower July 1996 in order to determine the source of the performance deficiency. A Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package was developed by JC&A for TVA in August 1996. All modifications to the cooling tower were implemented in an eighteen day period in October 1996. CTI capability testing of the Watts Bar cooling tower after the upgrade showed the tower to be operating at 106% of design capability, a reduction in cold water temperature of 3 - 4 degrees Fahrenheit. TVA estimates that the upgrade yields a gain in generation of 44,000 Mw-hrs per year or about 6 Mw additional system capacity. The Watts Bar cooling tower upgrade project was documented in a technical publication presented at EPRI’s 1997 Cooling Tower Technology Conference in St. Petersburg, Florida.


Background:
Two Research Cottrell natural draft cooling towers, historically 1.5 - 2.0 degrees F deficient.
Status:
Exit air temperature and velocity mappings prepared in April 1992 revealed significant water distribution problems in both cooling towers. In 1993 a detailed engineering Upgrade Design Modification Package was developed. . All modifications to the cooling tower were implemented in the Spring of 1995. Thermal performance testing of the White Bluff Unit 1 cooling tower carried out in September 1995 showed a capability of 97.5%.
2003 Update:
In November 2000 JC&A developed a conceptual design for perimeter test bays of low fouling PVC fill modules bottom supported on pultruded fiberglass fill joists for the Unit 1 cooling tower. The test bays, including four different low fouling fill designs were installed in 2001. In January 2002, JC&A provided thermal analysis services in order to evaluate the performance of the White Bluff cooling towers with the existing asbestos cement fill sheets in perimeter bays replaced with various low fouling PVC fill designs. In February 2002 JC&A prepared a bid specification document for replacement of the asbestos cement fill sheets in all perimeter fill bays with low fouling PVC fill modules supported by FRP beams. In April 2002 JC&A provided field engineering and quality control services during the replacement of the perimeter fill in the Unit 1 cooling tower. In June 2002 JC&A prepared temperature and velocity mappings of the Unit 1 cooling tower in order to assess the effect of the new fill on cooling tower performance. In March 2003 JC&A provided field engineering and quality control services during the replacement of the perimeter fill in the Unit 2 cooling tower. In May 2003 JC&A prepared exit air mappings of the Unit 2 cooling tower. In August 2003, in order to assess the effectiveness of 12 foot diameter TurboDraft fans at the cooling tower air inlet,  JC&A prepare exit air temperature mappings of the Unit 1 cooling tower with and without TurboDraft fans in service.


.

Background:
One Research Cottrell natural draft cooling tower with a thermal performance deficiency of approximately 2 degree F.
Status:
Exit air temperature and velocity mappings of Zimmer cooling tower prepared by JC&A in December 1995 revealed significant air/water mal-distribution. In August-September 1995, JC&A prepared a Thermal Performance Upgrade Design Modification Package for the Zimmer Station cooling tower. In October 1995, the upgrade modifications were partially implemented. In November 1995 JC&A prepared updated exit air mappings of the cooling tower.
2003 Update:
In May 2000 JC&A provided field engineering and quality control services while upgrade modifications were implemented into the cooling tower. In February 2002 JC&A prepared a bid specification document for replacement of asbestos cement fill sheets in perimeter fill bays with new low fouling PVC fill modules bottom supported on pultruded fiberglass beams. In April 2003 JC&A provided field engineering and quality control services during replacement of fill in perimeter fill bays. Completion of implementation of the Upgrade Design Modification Package and perimeter fill replacement work is planned for future unit outages.


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